Probably the best way to start is with a question. Why is it so difficult to stop climate change? It’s one of those questions that, just by asking it, implies the answer: because it’s very complicated. It’s the same answer that explains why the easier public issues get addressed in one fashion or another, and the tough ones linger unresolved.

In fact, it’s hard to imagine a more complex and difficult public policy challenge than the one posed by climate change. No doubt that explains why very little progress has been made for the last 30 years, since climate change was identified as a critical global issue at the formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 1998. As some argue, climate change represents the ultimate “prisoner’s dilemma” where one person’s choice affects the fate of another. Essentially, to address climate change effectively requires collaboration and collective action in pursuit of a common good. In this case that means a reduction in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to reverse, or at least mitigate, the consequences of global warming. If anyone acts in their own, short-term self-interest, others share the harm that results.

In fact, it’s hard to imagine a more complex and difficult public policy challenge than the one posed by climate change. No doubt that explains why very little progress has been made for the last 30 years, since climate change was identified as a critical global issue at the formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 1998. As some argue, climate change represents the ultimate “prisoner’s dilemma” where one person’s choice affects the fate of another. Essentially, to address climate change effectively requires collaboration and collective action in pursuit of a common good. In this case that means a reduction in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to reverse, or at least mitigate, the consequences of global warming. If anyone acts in their own, short-term self-interest, others share the harm that results.

Recently, the Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy (JSGS) decided to explore the climate change issue, the challenges it presents and the policy options to address it. Clearly, it is a subject fraught with conflicting economic interests and political priorities, drawn along international, national and regional lines. One small dimension of the challenge is the on-going disagreement between the governments of Canada and Saskatchewan on the policy framework that will enable Canada to meet its goal of a 30-per-cent reduction in GHGs from 2005 levels by 2030. The federal government is proposing a national carbon price to be in place next year as a key element in its climate change policy. The Saskatchewan government takes the position that a carbon price will do significant harm to the province’s trade-exposed economy and, moreover, not be effective in reducing CO2 emissions.

“ So you can add a moral dilemma to the geopolitical mix. In effect, the developed world is asking poor, underdeveloped nations not to do what we’ve done and use cheap fossil fuel energy sources to develop their economies, and improve their standard of living and quality of life. ”

The starting point for the JSGS policy paper “Climate Change: The Challenges, Policy Options and Implications” is an established fact. It is the overwhelming scientific consensus that climate change is the result of human activity caused by greenhouse gas emissions, largely due to the burning of fossil fuels.

Now put that into context. We’re talking about an issue that is impervious to borders and will have negative, some argue grave, global environmental, economic and social consequences. It brings with it a litany of seriously complex geopolitical issues in a global reality where nations instinctively act in their own self-interest. Moreover, climate change policy must exist in the political certainty that governments in democratic nations inevitably rise and fall on short-term political cycles and climate change requires long-term policy and commitment. A breathtaking example of how the vagaries of politics can derail climate change policy was last year’s election of U.S. President Donald Trump. Within days of taking office, Trump ended U.S. climate change policy established under his predecessor, Barack Obama.

To complicate matters even further, to successfully reduce GHG emissions and halt global warming requires that the more than 190 nations in the world act in a collaborative and coordinated fashion. All must agree to specific, measurable and enforceable actions that will transform their economies by drastically reducing their use of fossil fuels. Tackling climate change raises critical issues for many nations, especially ones heavily dependent on fossil fuels as a source of cheap energy and with societies where oil-and-gas production and the use of fossil fuels is a cornerstone of their economy. It means a transition to a greener, less carbon-based economy that, at least in the short-to-medium term, can also mean a lower standard of living.

There are those who will contest the lower-standard-of-living argument. They will say new renewable energy technology will itself stimulate innovation, creating jobs and opportunities. But we shouldn’t kid ourselves. Many forms of renewable energy make sense only with significant public subsidies because fossil fuel-based energy alternatives are often much cheaper. As a result, many societies and economies have been built on cheap carbon-based energy sources for generations. Given that fact, for a low-carbon market to be created it must be imposed by government edict, which is the crux of the climate change debate.

The fact remains that energy is the lifeblood of any economy. Access to cheap, accessible and reliable sources of carbon-based energy has been the foundation for our standard of living and quality of life in the developed world. But not everyone has been as fortunate as us. As the World Bank notes, billions of people live in a state of energy poverty. In 2015, it said about billion people still do not have access to electricity and about 2.9 billion use solid fuels such as wood, charcoal and dung for cooking and heating.

Dale Eisler
Dale Eisler is a senior policy fellow at Johnson Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, with a focus on energy policy and Canada-U.S. relations. He is also a senior advisor on Government Relations to University of Regina President Vianne Timmons. (Photo by Trevor Hopkin)

So you can add a moral dilemma to the geopolitical mix. In effect, the developed world is asking poor, underdeveloped nations not to do what we’ve done and use cheap fossil fuel energy sources to develop their economies, and improve their standard of living and quality of life. They need to skip that part in the development cycle and go straight to a more expensive modern, green, renewable energy economy and society.

A person could go on with other complicating factors, such as how to price the future costs of climate change in current dollars, but the point seems clear. Addressing climate change is arguably the most, or one of the most, difficult public policy issues on the world agenda. Which brings us back to the climate change policy standoff between Ottawa and Saskatchewan.

The ongoing friction between the two governments demonstrates the perils of trying to get agreement on the coordination of climate change policy. A key dimension of the Trudeau government’s Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change is to establish a national price on carbon. The federal government intends to have a minimum $10 a tonne price on carbon in place nationally next year. If provinces don’t implement the price – which rises $10 a year to $50 a tonne by 2022 – Ottawa will impose the price. It can be in the form of a carbon tax, or a regulatory instrument like a system of cap and trade on heavy GHG emitters. The federal plan calls for all revenue raised by the carbon price to remain in the jurisdiction where it is generated – any money from the carbon price paid in Saskatchewan will go into provincial coffers, to be spent any way the provincial government sees fit.

The policy argument for a carbon price is grounded in sound market economic principles. Simply put, price is the mechanism we use to efficiently allocate resources. Ideally, price is a reflection of both supply and demand for something, as well as the external costs that result from its production. The more something costs will tend to reduce its demand. When CO2 has no price, its use is unconnected to the costs it imposes, in this case the effects of climate change. So, in a proper-functioning market environment where carbon has a price, the social harm created by the burning of fossil fuels would be included in the price.

That is about as far from a radical idea as you can get. It is Economics 100 dogma and how we treat virtually everything else in the private market. Yet when it comes to climate change policy, the talk of a carbon price can make some heads explode.

The reason it does has many layers, some more visible than others.

But the key one relates to the strength of policymakers’ belief in the urgency of the climate change issue and how that correlates with public opinion. The fact of the matter is that to seriously address climate change requires a significant change in public behaviour now for the benefit of future generations. It amounts to a leap of faith. People need to believe they can make a difference and that the cost to them today is justified by the benefits others will derive from the change long after most of us are dead and gone.

Determining the public’s willingness to act is a political calculation that is hard to discern. Public opinion research suggests that, in the abstract, a significant majority of Canadians believe climate change is happening and is an important policy priority. But whether that opinion will withstand the practicality of a tax on carbon, or accepting the need for a change in behaviour that results in even a temporary lower standard of living, is the true test of its resilience. It’s worth noting that public opinion research on whether climate change is caused by human activity tends to lag the Canadian average in Saskatchewan.

For the Government of Canada, the key to unlocking the political challenge of creating a carbon price that is visible in the form of a tax, is to keep the revenue it generates in the jurisdiction where it’s raised. The Saskatchewan government estimates the fully implemented carbon price of $50 a tonne by 2022 would cost taxpayers $2.5 billion. Ottawa argues that revenue used wisely – whether to reduce other taxes such as provincial income tax or sales tax, or through other stimulative spending, will, on a net basis, more than offset the negative economic effects of the carbon price.

All it would take is a little policy ingenuity on the part of the provincial government. And, yes, a little bit of political nerve to do what evidence suggests is the right thing. But if history is any lesson, that’s a lot easier said than done.

About the Author

Dale Eisler is a senior policy fellow at the Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy and a senior advisor on Government Relations to University of Regina President Vianne Timmons. He previously held several positions in the federal public service, including assistant deputy minister at Natural Resources Canada, consul general for Canada in the U.S., assistant secretary to Cabinet, and assistant deputy minister at Finance Canada.

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David Garneau’s artworks have been exhibited nationally and internationally in group and solo shows. His work can be found in numerous collections, including the Canadian Museum of Civilization in Ottawa, Canadian Parliament, the MacKenzie Art Gallery, the Saskatchewan Arts Board and the City of Calgary. His most recent installation, however, is in an unconventional location: underneath the new light rail transit (LRT) Tawatina Bridge in Edmonton.

This is the first time the Métis artist has attempted a project of this scale. “I’ve done murals in the early 80s at daycares in Calgary, but nothing close to this,” he says.

David Garneau Artwork

Garneau was inspired to apply for the Tawatina Bridge public art commission after he was involved in the consultation process for an Indigenous Art Park in Edmonton. He was one of six artists brought in by the city to give advice on best practices for Indigenous art commissions. As a result, meaningful consultations with Indigenous Elders, community members and artists were part of the process for both the art park and the LRT bridge commissions.

David Garneau in his University of Regina studio.

“This project will bring lots of visibility to MAP, to our faculty and students,” says Rae Staseson, dean of MAP. “It is so exciting to watch the work develop and to see students being mentored on this project. It is transformative in so many ways, and demonstrates the strength and quality of the work being produced by Indigenous artists in this province, and particularly at the University of Regina, where David is an important mentor and teacher of emerging artists.”

“The fact that Métis culture is represented in this project is crucial to me. Métis culture was forced underground. People are rediscovering it, but this resilience must come with enrichment.”

Robert Harpin, public art officer with the Edmonton Arts Council, which is engaged by the City of Edmonton to manage the public art program, says that Garneau’s work was chosen because of its ambitious nature. Originally, he had proposed 100 paintings for the project, which impressed the council. Since acquiring the commission, Garneau has quadrupled the amount of work to be created.

“He is such a respected artist in Canada,” Harpin says. “These are all original paintings going on the underside of this bridge. It’s not just about the numbers, though. A lot of public art doesn’t have the artist’s hand quite the way this piece will.”

David Garneau Artwork

Harpin calls the amount of consultation Garneau has committed to “absolutely staggering and critical to this project.” In addition to combing through the Métis beading and other material culture at the Royal Alberta Museum, Garneau continues to engage with Indigenous people around the city, especially the Métis Nation of Alberta, and Chief Calvin Bruneau and members of the Papaschase Band. He is also soliciting stories and feedback through the project’s website (tawatinabridgeartproject.ca).

While the themes and style are primarily Métis and Cree, Garneau also wants to refer to other peoples of the region. For example, he met recently with Nii Koney and members of the Nile Valley Foundation about representing the African Diaspora.

“It’s not just the stories of the Indigenous community, rather it’s the stories of the people of this place that he’s engaged in this particular project,” Harpin says. “The amount of research and connection to various communities is on a level that I’ve never seen a public artist take on. It’s absolutely remarkable. There’s often a lot of contention around public art, but this piece – David is extending himself so far beyond what the average public artist would be doing. It’s kind of a coup for the city – I’m personally thrilled that we have a massive David Garneau project going in. It’s an honour for us, and I hope he’s getting a lot out of it.”

For Garneau, consultation is essential. “I feel the weight of the Métis and First Nations community on my shoulders,” he says. He made six trips to Edmonton in the year since receiving the commission to engage with Elders and community members, seeking out their ideas of imagery that should be included in the project. A significant portion of his budget is dedicated to the consultation process, making sure that Elders and others are paid for their cultural consultation and showing them that the project is being taken seriously. “This is not the expression of an individual artist, but an expression of a community and an individual artist working together. That’s the part I’m most excited by.”

Consultation also helps to ensure that the resulting public art project is authentic and does not upset members of the community. A recent controversy took place in Calgary, where a New York artist created public artwork that offended local First Nations, as they felt it emulated Indigenous burial scaffolding. Before accepting the commission, Garneau researched public art, even giving a lecture in Canmore about why bad public art happens. He says the culprit is usually juries made up of community people who understand communities and artists who understand art, but neither understanding the unique field that is public art.

David Garneau Artwork

“Working with the community and Elders has been the most joyful part of this project. People are excited to have their stories represented. While I hope my team and I will make something beautiful and of lasting visual interest, the paintings respond to the site, its history, and will have some unsettling content,” says Garneau.

The 400-piece scope of the mural also acts like a fail-safe mechanism. “If I unintentionally upset someone, I can take that part of it out.”

David Garneau’s great-great grandparents David Garneau’s great-great grandparents, Laurent and Eleanor Garneau. Laurent Garneau is the Métis son of a French fur trader. He was one of Louis Riel’s soldiers in the Red River Resistance of 1869 and moved to Edmonton in 1874

The Garneau legacy made the news in September when a tree that Eleanor planted was declared unsafe due to rot and was slated to be removed. The tree is in the City of Edmonton’s inventory of historic resources, usually reserved for buildings, and is well known among residents.

The Garneau legacy made the news in September when a tree that Eleanor planted was declared unsafe due to rot and was slated to be removed. The tree is in the City of Edmonton’s inventory of historic resources, usually reserved for buildings, and is well known among residents.

The community came together in celebration of the 143-year-old Manitoba maple with a ceremony and Métis kitchen party hosted by Cheryl L’Hirondelle, David Garneau, the University of Alberta and the Métis Nation of Alberta. Garneau flew back to Edmonton for the occasion and was among hundreds of attendees, many of whom had ties to the Garneau family. Thanks to the generosity of the University of Alberta, wood from the tree is being salvaged, dried and milled, and will be distributed among interested family, community members and Métis carvers.

The Garneau tree was planted about 1874 and survived more than twice as long as most Manitoba Maples. The ailing tree was removed shortly after this photo was taken.

The community came together in celebration of the 143-year-old Manitoba maple with a ceremony and Métis kitchen party hosted by Cheryl L’Hirondelle, David Garneau, the University of Alberta and the Métis Nation of Alberta. Garneau flew back to Edmonton for the occasion and was among hundreds of attendees, many of whom had ties to the Garneau family. Thanks to the generosity of the University of Alberta, wood from the tree is being salvaged, dried and milled, and will be distributed among interested family, community members and Métis carvers.

The relationship between the Garneaus and the Papaschase Band continues today, with the artist consulting with the current chief in order to incorporate Papaschase history into the public artwork. “He told me things about my family that I didn’t know,” he says.

This winter Garneau will play a Métis interpreter in an upcoming re-enactment of the adhesion to Treaty Six signing in Edmonton, reinforcing parallels between past and present relationships.

One challenge Garneau faced in expressing Métis themes in his work is that, traditionally, Métis people didn’t paint much, making it difficult to use Métis painting as a source for contemporary art. Instead, Garneau is looking to Métis beadwork from the area as major inspiration, translating the beads into painted dots.

MAP graduate student Madhu Kumar considers her involvement in the project a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.

“The fact that Métis culture is represented in this project is crucial to me. Métis culture was forced underground. People are rediscovering it, but this resilience must come with enrichment,” he says. “For a long time, Métis culture focused on Batoche in 1885. That moment is important, but should not stand as the paragon of Métisness. I am excited to contribute to the continuation and advancement of Métis culture.”

Some of the panels of the mural are based on archival photos and others are more playful. “The long (200 metres) bridge format gives me a lot of freedom. When an artwork is on a wall, there’s a certain weight to it. When painting for the ceiling, you can take advantage of that space and feel that weightlessness.”

David Garneau Artwork

He created an animated crow using 30 still images of the bird to make it look like it is flapping its wings as you walk below it. A dozen cranes will be arranged in a spiral, varying from twenty centimetres to two and a half metres. There is a large painting of the inside of a teepee, from the vantage point of someone lying inside it and looking up at the sky peeking out between the poles. One hundred little fish will “swim” throughout, including representations of all the different kinds of fish that live in the river flowing under the bridge.

A top hat with a beaver painted in it is a reference to the fur trade – Edmonton is known in Cree as Amiskwaciy or “beaver hills.” A painting of a Google Earth image of the old bridge being taken down, as well as a representation of some of the carvings people had made in that bridge, are nods to a structure beloved by many in the Edmonton community.

While some images are obvious representations, others are attached to stories and local knowledge; this artwork requires storytelling to become complete. When finished, Garneau will give talking tours of the project. After that, the stories will not be written down; it will be up to other storytellers to narrate the painting cycle. “Some stories are not mine to tell. I have been asked to make an image, but the story can only be unlocked by those gifted with the responsibility of the story,” explains Garneau.

This echoes his work as a co-curator (with Michelle LaVallee) on the project Moving Forward, Never Forgetting at the MacKenzie Art Gallery in 2015. As part of that exhibition, the Aboriginal artwork was activated by stories told by a story keeper rather than by words printed on paper. “I can see schoolchildren reading this mural like a book,” he says. “My ideal viewer would be lying on a longboard looking up, watching it flow like a river or like the movement of clouds.”

Garneau knew he would never be able to complete a project of this scope on his own. He has engaged mostly Indigenous University of Regina students and recent graduates, a team of graffiti artists in Edmonton led by AJA Louden, and his two children, B and Cassandra, to help. They are doing the prep work – sanding and priming the 400 plus pieces – as well as some of the painting, under Garneau’s mentorship. He expects about half of the project costs will go toward preparation and labour. “It’s important to me to have students involved, not just in the painting, but hearing the stories and getting experience for future commissions. I think this is something we could teach in the future,” he says.

David Garneau Artwork

Garneau’s main student assistants for the project include Matthew Lapierre, Mackenzie Grad BFA’17, Sadie George, Evan Obey, Sarah Timewell, David Zhang and Madhu Kumar BFA’17. Kumar, originally from India, had the distinction of painting a portrait of Chief Papaschase on the shape of a cloud, among other works. “I felt the practical knowledge of painting connected me more to Indigenous people. These are all Indigenous people’s stories that are true and real, and you feel that,” she says.

“This is a once-in-a-lifetime experience. In 2015, I went to Rome and saw the Sistine Chapel. I went there twice to see it. And I stood there a long time dreaming about it. It seems my dream has come true through David’s project,” she says.

A substantial amount of work has been done on the project already. By next summer, Garneau will be in the studio, painting full time. Two years seems like a long time, but with a busy academic schedule, giving talks across Canada and writing book chapters, he knows it will fly by.

In addition to serving as a beautiful work of art for Edmonton residents to appreciate, the project serves as an important metaphor. “This is a traditional transit space for Métis, Indigenous and other peoples; a bridge between two settled sides of the river bank. It’s about the conciliation between settlers and Indigenous peoples and taking the middle space seriously,” Garneau says.

[post_title] => Bridging the past and the future [post_excerpt] => Métis artist and associate professor David Garneau is working on a two-year art commission for the City of Edmonton. [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => bridging-the-past-and-the-future [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-11-02 23:28:39 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-11-03 05:28:39 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://vm-uor-degrees/?p=434 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 440 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2018-02-07 02:16:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2018-02-07 08:16:00 [post_content] => [post_title] => Convictions [post_excerpt] => Earlier this year, Robin Schlaht BFA’92 co-created the interactive documentary Convictions for Legacies150, a National Film Board series of photo-based digital projects exploring ideas of home and legacy. Convictions follows the Wiebes, a traditional Mennonite family, as they emigrate from their Old Colony community in Chihuahua, Mexico to an uncertain future in Canada, reversing the path that their forebears took almost 100 years earlier. [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => focal-point-convictions [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2018-04-24 15:53:52 [post_modified_gmt] => 2018-04-24 21:53:52 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://vm-uor-degrees/?p=440 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw )